latvia winter temperature

[47] Half the residents of Riga were killed by plague in 1710–1711. By 2011, more than half of non-citizens had taken naturalization exams and received Latvian citizenship. This led to the development of the Amber Road. Approximately 30,000 performers altogether participate in the event. Opera – shine bright like a diamond. [87][88][89], Coastal regions, especially the western coast of the Courland Peninsula, possess a more maritime climate with cooler summers and milder winters, while eastern parts exhibit a more continental climate with warmer summers and harsher winters. [citation needed], In the post-war period, Latvia was made to adopt Soviet farming methods. Latvian cuisine has been influenced by the neighbouring countries. [113] Joint Nordic-Baltic co-operation initiatives include the education programme NordPlus[114] and mobility programmes for public administration,[115] business and industry[116] and culture. [56]:127 Another 30,000 Jews from the Riga ghetto were killed in the Rumbula Forest in November and December 1941, to reduce overpopulation in the ghetto and make room for more Jews being brought in from Germany and the West. The war of independence that followed was part of a general chaotic period of civil and new border wars in Eastern Europe. [20] The Baltic Sea moderates the climate, although the country has four distinct seasons and snowy winters. More-detailed discussion in Daina Stukuls Eglitis, "Baltic Thaw, Aegean freeze", The Economist, 27 February 2010, p59, Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe, Learn how and when to remove this template message, German occupation of Latvia during World War II, Latvian anti-Nazi resistance movement 1941–45, Occupation of Latvia by Soviet Union 1944–1945, On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, historical and cultural regions in Latvia, Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications, Presidency of the Council of the European Union, Inčukalns underground gas storage facility, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, "Pastāvīgo iedzīvotāju etniskais sastāvs reģionos un republikas pilsētās gada sākumā", "Tieslietu ministrijā iesniegtie reliģisko organizāciju pārskati par darbību 2011. gadā", Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, https://www.csb.gov.lv/en/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/number-and-change/key-indicator/population-number-its-changes-and-density, "Population Census 2011 – Key Indicators", "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey", "The Constitution of the Republic of Latvia, Chapter 1 (Article 4)", "Official Language Law, Section 3 (Article 1)", "Official Language Law, Sections 4, 5 and 18 (Article 4)", "Official Language Law, Section 3 (Articles 3 and 4)", "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings", https://op.europa.eu/en/web/eu-vocabularies/th-concept/-/resource/eurovoc/911?uri=http://eurovoc.europa.eu/911, https://www.kyivpost.com/world/un-classifies-latvia-lithuania-estonia-northern-europe.html, "UPHEAVAL IN THE EAST; Soviet Congress Condemns '39 Pact That Led to Annexation of Baltics", "Etniskais sastāvs un mazākumtautību kultūras identitātes veicināšana", "IRG110. [93], The 2012 Environmental Performance Index ranks Latvia second, after Switzerland, based on the environmental performance of the country's policies. Representing 10.2% of Latvia's total foreign direct investment, American companies invested $127 million in 1999. [85] Latvia's Red Book (Endangered Species List of Latvia), which was established in 1977, contains 112 plant species and 119 animal species. [22] Latvia is a democratic sovereign state, parliamentary republic. "Lettonia" redirects here. Amber, fossilized tree resin, is one of Latvia's most important cultural symbols. [177], Latvia has three big hydroelectric power stations in Pļaviņu HES (825MW), Rīgas HES (402 MW) and Ķeguma HES-2 (192 MW). The length of Latvia's Baltic coastline is 494 km (307 mi). At Pape Nature Reserve, where European bison, wild horses, and recreated aurochs have been reintroduced, there is now an almost complete Holocene megafauna also including moose, deer, and wolf.[105]. [94] Forests account for 3,497,000 ha (8,640,000 acres) or 56% of the total land area. [55] A week later, on 1 September 1939, Germany and on 17 September, the Soviet Union invaded Poland. Latvian armed forces have contributed to NATO and EU military operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996–2009), Albania (1999), Kosovo (2000–2009), Macedonia (2003), Iraq (2005–2006), Afghanistan (since 2003), Somalia (since 2011) and Mali (since 2013). Virtually all of the previously state-owned small and medium companies have been privatised, leaving only a small number of politically sensitive large state companies. In 1897, 61.2% of the rural population had been landless; by 1936, that percentage had been reduced to 18%. [84], Latvia has over 12,500 rivers, which stretch for 38,000 km (24,000 mi). The longest river on Latvian territory is the Gauja, at 452 km (281 mi) in length. Other popular sports include football, floorball, tennis, volleyball, cycling, bobsleigh and skeleton. [51] The constitution was partly suspended by Kārlis Ulmanis after his coup in 1934 but reaffirmed in 1990. There are plenty of concerts and cultural events going on during the winter (see Music Festivals in Latvia), and it's always fun to go gallery hopping and shopping in the boutiques of Riga. XX V.). [188], Beginning in 2019, instruction in Russian language will be gradually discontinued in private colleges and universities in Latvia, as well as general instruction in Latvian public high schools,[189][190] except for subjects related to culture and history of the Russian minority, such as Russian language and literature classes.[191]. With 2.3in over 12 days, rain may occur throughout your stay. Oak (Quercus robur, Latvian: ozols), and linden (Tilia cordata, Latvian: liepa) are Latvia's national trees and the daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare, Latvian: pīpene) its national flower. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became an autonomous Russian province (the Courland Governorate) in 1795, bringing all of what is now Latvia into the Russian Empire. [122] Latvia held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union in the first half of 2015. However, by 2010, commentators[168][169] noted signs of stabilisation in the Latvian economy. The Evangelical Lutheran Church, with an estimated 600,000 members in 1956, was affected most adversely. [80], Language and citizenship laws have been opposed by many Russophones. [157], Since the year 2000, Latvia has had one of the highest (GDP) growth rates in Europe. [196] By 2020 the government aims to spend 1.5% of GDP on research and development, with half of the investments coming from the private sector. In a typical Latvian landscape, a mosaic of vast forests alternates with fields, farmsteads, and pastures. [58] The racially approved being resettled mainly in Poland, being given land and businesses in exchange for the money they had received from the sale of their previous assets.[56]:46. By 29 June Riga was reached and with Soviet troops killed, captured or retreating, Latvia was left under the control of German forces by early July. There were some spontaneous uprisings by Latvians against the Red Army which helped the Germans. [205], The Latvian Song and Dance Festival is an important event in Latvian culture and social life. [53], On 25 March 1949, 43,000 rural residents ("kulaks") and Latvian nationalists were deported to Siberia in a sweeping Operation Priboi in all three Baltic states, which was carefully planned and approved in Moscow already on 29 January 1949. On 18 February 2012, Latvia held a constitutional referendum on whether to adopt Russian as a second official language. Latvia is a unitary state, currently divided into 110 one-level municipalities (Latvian: novadi) and 9 republican cities (Latvian: republikas pilsētas) with their own city council and administration: Daugavpils, Jēkabpils, Jelgava, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Rēzekne, Riga, Valmiera, and Ventspils. [37] The local people, however, did not convert to Christianity as readily as the Church had hoped. The Soviets reoccupied the country in 1944–1945, and further deportations followed as the country was collectivised As of 2014[update] there were 109 schools for minorities that use Russian as the language of instruction (27% of all students) for 40% of subjects (the remaining 60% of subjects are taught in Latvian). Currently incompatible with European Standard gauge lines than males, coalescing in the Baltic states,... Cultural changes occurred during this time peaceful means of conversion failed to produce results, Meinhard plotted to Livonians... 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August with an average temperature +8.1°C higher [ 33 ] the Soviets reoccupied the country 's Orthodox Christians to...

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